MEASURES AND INGREDIENTS

Weight equivalents in the metric system (grams and liters) with the Anglo-Saxon (Canada, Australia), Imperial (Great Britain) and United States measurement systems

  • from the Anglo-Saxon system (used in Canada and Australia) to the metric system:
FrenchEnglish1 cup or cup
water  water250ml
flour flour132,25 g
sucre sugar212,25 g
powder powder127,75 g
Sugars and sweetenersSugars and sweeteners 
brown sugar (in pieces)brown sugar (packed)205,75 g
Granulated sugargranulated sugar212,25 g
powdered sugar (unsifted)powdered sugar (unsift)127,75 g
raw cane sugarraw cane sugar240,25 g
icing sugaricing sugar150 g
mielhoney355ml
Maple syrupmaple syrup330ml
steviastevia110,75 g
flourFlour 
All purpose flourall purpose flour132,25 g
Almond powderalmond flour101,5 g
Bread flourbread flour137,5 g
Cake flourcake flour120,5 g
Pastry flourpastry flour112 g
Whote wheat flourwhote wheat flour119,5 g
Yeastbaking powder225 g
Baking soda (bicarb)baking soda (bicarb)172,25 g
Fats and oilsFats and oils 
Butterbutter239,75 g
Lardbacon229,75 g
margarinemargarine243,25 g
Coconut oilcoconut oil231,07 g
Olive oilolive oil230 g
Palm oilpalm oil222,5 g
Rapeseed oilrapeseed oil230 g
Sunflower oilsunflower oil240 g
Milk and creamMilk and cream 
Milkmilk258,75ml
Light creamlight cream253ml
Heavy creamheavy cream248,5ml
Whipped creamwhipped cream124ml
Nuts and seedsNuts and seeds 
Almondsalmonds115 g
Cashew nutcashew nuts125 g
Peanuts, unshelledpeanuts, not shelled68 g
Peanuts, shelledpeanuts, shelled160,25 g
Sun-flower seedssunflower seeds155 g
Fruits and vegetablesFruit and veg 
French Friesapples160,25 g
Avocado (cubes)avocado (cubes)158,5 g
Avocado (mash)avocado (puree)243,04 g
Corn gritscorn, grits168,25 g
Corn, on the cobcorn, on the cob180,25 g
Corn, shelledcorn, shelled180,25 g
Potatoes (white)potatoes (white)192,25 g
Other IngredientsOther ingredients 
Shipping isbran64 g
breadcrumbsbreadcrumbs112,5 g
Cannellecinnamon140 g
Cocoa powdercocoa powder160,25 g
Grated coconutcoconut, shredded88 g
Cumin (powder)cumin (powdered)142,5 g
Fruit juicefruit juice265 g
jamjam333,25 g
Mayonnaisemayonnaise227,5 g
oatsoats108 g
Oats, rolledoats, rolled76 g
Rice (husked)rice (hulled)188,25 g
Rice (raw)rice (rough)144,25 g
Ryerye176,25 g
Fine saltsalt, fine300,25 g
Yeastyeast237,5 g
Natural yogurt)yogurt (plain)265 g
  • from the Imperial system (UK) to the metric system:

Multiply the grammages of the equivalence between the Anglo-Saxon system towards the metric system above by 1,1365

  • from the USA system to the metric system:

Multiply the grammages of the equivalence between the Anglo-Saxon system towards the metric system above by 0,9464

1 cup = 16 tbsp. to s.
1 c. = 3 c. to c.
c. = tablespoon; c. = teaspoon

Oven temperatures

ThermostatCelsiusFahrenheitComments
T13085Oven
T260140Oven
T390190Soft oven
T4120250Soft oven
T5150300Soft oven
T6180350Hot oven
T7210410Hot oven
T8240460Very hot oven
T9270520Very hot oven

Water temperatures

0°C32 ° FWater freezes (freezing point)
36,9°C98,6 ° FBody temperature
46°C115 ° FSimmering water
54°C130 ° FHot water
100°C212 ° FBoiling water
190°C375 ° FFrying temperature

Food storage temperatures:

A distinction is made between “negative cold”, for products stored below 0 ° C, and “positive cold” for products above 0 ° C.

  • "Negative cold" :
    • -20 ° C for ice cream
    • -18 ° C to -14 ° C for frozen food, frozen food and butter,
    • -12 ° C to -10 ° C for meat, offal, rabbits, poultry, game,
  • "Positive cold" :
    • 0 ° C to + 4 ° C for fish, meats, pastries, cold dishes, meats, poultry, game, offal, sauces.
    • + 5 ° C for oysters, mussels and other shellfish,
    • 0 ° C to + 8 ° C for soft and blue cheese,
    • + 10 ° C to + 15 ° C for semi-preserves, cold meats, crusted cheeses and eggs.

Sugar cooking temperatures

spaTemperatureComments
tablecloth100°CThe syrup comes to a boil and becomes transparent. When you dip a utensil in it, it coats it.
small net101°CIf you dip your fingers in cold water, then in the caramel, a very fragile thread forms. This caramel is used, among other things, for making almond paste.
large net102°CSame as at a temperature of 101 ° C but the net is much thicker and less fragile
little pearl105°CLarge round drops appear on the surface of the syrup. Allows the realization of the turron (Spanish confectionery).
large beaded107°CWidely used for cherries in disguise
little ball113°CPour a little syrup into a bowl of cold water, a soft, easy-to-work ball will form. This cooking temperature is used to make the soft caramel, the nougat, etc.
big ball123°CSame as for a temperature of 113 ° C, with the only difference that the ball becomes harder and stronger. An essential step to make fondants and nougats.
little broken130°CThe ball is hard and very sticky. To work it, you have to wait until the sugar is no longer sticky.
big broken148°CThe caramel ball is colorless, hard, brittle and not sticky. It allows the realization of hard caramels, fruits glazed with sugar, cotton candy, ...
light caramel155°C
dark caramelabove 155 ° C

Meat cooking temperatures

Cooking methods:

BakingTemperatureMeat colorThe juice of the meatFor what meat
Very blue45 ° cOriginal colorDark redLow-fat meats to be enjoyed cold
Blue55 ° cRedRedRed meats with little fat and refined flavors
Bleeding60 ° cDewLight pinkMeats with parsley and intense and complex flavors
Medium rare65 ° cPinkish brownClearVery parsley and very intense meats
Well done70 ° cBrownNo juiceCooking not recommended for red meats for grilling or frying

Average meat cooking temperatures :

MeatBlueRare / roséA pointWell done
Bœuf50°C55°C60°C72°C
Veal57°C60°C68°C75°C
Pork---85°C
Lamb57°C62 ° C ° C65°C75°C
Chicken---85°C
Duck-53°C71°C75°C
Foie gras-56-58 °C (77°F)65-68 °C (77°F)-
Game---75°C

Cooking times:

FoodAverage weightTime to grabCooking time° C° C at core
Roast beef800 g4 min2 hours80°C55 ° C (medium)
Roast beef2 kg10 min3 hours80°C55 ° C (medium)
Roast veal800 g4 min2 hours80°C60°C
Leg of lamb2 kg10 min3 30 pm80°C60°C
Pork filet mignon400 g3 min1 30 pm80°C66°C
Duck breast200 g3 min1 hours80°C65°C
Chicken thighs170 g3 min1 45 pm90°C70°C
Rabbit legs180 g3 min1 hours80°C68°C
Salmon150 g1 min30 min70°C54 ° C (medium)
White fish150 g1 min35 min70°C52 ° C

The qualities of sugar

sucre White ou Cristal (extracted directly from the sugar beet)
sucre in powder ou semolina (grinding white sugar)
sucre ice (very fine grinding of white sugar + 3% starch)
brown sugar (sugar beet or cane syrup)
sucre cane red ou brown sugar (brown crystallized sugar from sugar cane juice)
candidates (brown crystals from a concentrated sugar syrup)
sugar to jams (white sugar + gelling agent (1%) + citric acid (1%)
sucre vanilla (sugar and natural vanilla extract)
sucre vanillin (sugar and vanilla aromas)
sucre invert (glucose, fructose and sucrose)
melting (concentrated sugar syrup)
sucre in grains ou perlé ou casson (hard sugar in the form of pearls)

The different yeasts

  • Baker's yeast : 
    • Fresh baker's yeast
      • It can be stored in the refrigerator (4 ° C) for 2 weeks maximum or in the freezer for several weeks. It is activated by being diluted in a little water or lukewarm milk and leaving it to ferment for 15 min.
      • The dosage: 1 cube = 21 g for 500 g flour
    • Active dry baker's yeast
      • Dehydrated, it is packaged in sachets and can be kept for several months. It is reactivated in a little warm water (between 35 and 38 ° C), for 15 min.
      • Dosage: 7 to 8 g for 500 g of flour
    • Instant dry baker's yeast
      • It comes in the form of fine vermicelli, offering long-term conservation. It does not require any prior reactivation.
      • Dosage: 5 g for 500 g of flour
  • La baking powder

Also called baking powder (baking powder in English) or baking powder, it contains a basic agent (bicarbonate), an acidic agent (tartaric acid) and a stabilizer (starch or starch). When moistened, a chemical reaction occurs, releasing carbon dioxide. Under the effect of heat, this reaction intensifies.

The dosage: 1 sachet = 10 g = 500 g flour

The types of flour

Flour Type (TF)Nameuses
T45very white flourpastry, sauces
T55White flourwhite bread, pasta pie or quiche, pastries
T65cream flourtraditional breads
T80flour bise or semi-completecountry breads
T110wholemeal flourwhole wheat bread
T150flour to the sound or integralbran bread

The classifications of flour differ in Germany, France and Italy (the extraction rate is the percentage of flour extracted from each grain; the extraction rate and the ash rate are closely correlated):

Quote about cooking:

“Cooking is love and generosity. "

Paul Bocuse